Recommended monitoring during and after treatment of CanL

  Sick treated dogs Clinically healthy infected dogs
Clinical history and physical examination
CBC, biochemical profile ± serum electrophoresis
Complete urinalysis ±UPC
After the first month of treatment and then every 3-4 months during the first year.
Thereafter, every 6-12 months in dogs fully recovered clinically with treatment.
Every 3-6 months
Quantitative serology* Not before 3 months after initial treatment and every 6-12 months. Every 3-6 months
Real-time PCR (optional)** At the same time as serology. Every 3-6 months

CBC: complete blood count; UPC: urinary protein:creatinine ratio.

* Some dogs have a major decrease in antibody levels (i.e. on IFAT results a two- to three-fold dilutions difference between monitoring samples) associated with clinical improvement within 6-12 months of therapy. A marked increase in antibody levels (i.e. at least three two-fold dilutions difference between monitoring samples) should be interpreted as a marker of disease relapse, especially in dogs following the discontinuation of treatment.
** Diagnostic sensitivity of PCR assays relies considerably on the type and number of different tissues evaluated. Bone marrow, lymph node, spleen, cutaneous lesions are better targets for Leishmania detection than whole blood. Two to three samples of different tissues are recommended for a more accurate diagnosis.


Management of unvaccinated infected, but apparently healthy dogs

Management of all dogs with no clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities

It is recommended to use serology alone or the combination of serology with PCR for screening healthy dogs and to avoid screening clinically health y dogs (not vaccinated) only by PCR.
Confirmed low seropositive dogs should be monitored with physical examinations, routine laboratory and serological tests on a regular basis every 3-6 months to assess the possible progression of infection towards disease.